Molluscan Shellfish Illness Reviews
The Molluscan Shellfish illness Reviews presented a history of shellfish-vectored illnesses, which was associated with consumption of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops that occurred in the past nine decades. A typhoid fever was a significant public health problem among consumers of raw molluscan shellfish earlier in this century.
The Molluscan Shellfish illness Reviews resulted to the development of more effective sewage treatment procedures and the institution of a national program following these outbreaks led to a series of measures which eventually eliminated shellfish-associated typhoid fever. Present-day problems associated with this food source still involve some wastewater borne bacterial illnesses. However, the principal public health concerns are with wastewater-derived viral pathogens and with bacterial agents of an environmental origin. The nature, occurrence, and magnitude of these public health problems are described.
The Molluscan Shellfish illness Reviews reveals that the Foodborne viral infections are caused mainly by two types of virus, Norwalk-like viruses which cause gastroenteritis and Hepatitis A virus which causes hepatitis. All food borne viruses originate from the human intestine and contamination of molluscan shellfish that occurs either during preparation by infected food handlers or by contact with sewage sludge or polluted water.
The Molluscan Shellfish illness Reviews concluded to ensure control measures that would mainly depend on education and good factory and kitchen hygiene of food handlers. The food handlers suffering from symptoms should be excluded from work immediately and all staff made aware of the ease with which viral contamination is transmitted. The use of clean water for irrigation of crops that are likely to be eaten raw and cultivation of molluscan shellfish in sewage-free seawater are also essential to prevent viral contamination of food.
The Molluscan Shellfish illness Reviews further say that the food borne viruses are a common human infection that can occur either by the consumption of contaminated food, or from person to person through body contact or release of aerosols. The greatest risk of food borne illness occurs from catering operations preparing ready to eat foods, although food borne spread is difficult to prove.
The molluscan shellfish, such as clams, oysters, and mussels, which are served raw or partially cooked, present the greatest risk of likelihood of illness to consumers. These shellfish concentrate environmental contaminants and microorganisms in their flesh. Only about 33,000 of the estimated 6.5 million to 33 million cases of foodborne illnesses that occur each year in this country are estimated to be attributed to seafood, representing less than half of 1 percent of the total. However, if seafood consumption increases, so will exposure to risks from seafood-carried diseases.
The Molluscan Shellfish illness Reviews explains that the viruses require a host in order to multiply, and the original source of all food borne viruses is the human intestine. The main food type associated with food borne viruses is molluscan shellfish such as oysters, cockles and mussels, which are usually found in shallow coastal or estuarine waters, commonly near sewage outlets. Them molluscs are either eaten raw or after a mild heat process, which if poorly controlled may not inactivate virus particles present.
The cultivation of molluscan shellfish in clean water is therefore paramount in the control of viral contamination. Although molluscs are the most clearly implicated source of food borne viral illness, they do not necessarily cause most illness as concluded by the Molluscan Shellfish illness Reviews.